20 years
The Bhopal Memory Project

resources | master list of old resources

The Bhopal Memory Project first began collecting resources in 2004. Our original list of resources is listed below. Since then, we have recategoried and added new materials to the site. We have left this webpage intact for our viewers who are familiar with our old format.

If you are new to the site or are looking for new materials, we recommend that you start with the reports, documents, articles page for a more accessible display of our various resources.

To facilitate research into the Bhopal Gas tragedy, its aftermath, and related issues, we help to maintain and update the Bhopal Action Resource Center's Bhopal bibliography.  We also have annotated references to and downloadable copies of as many primary and secondary texts as possible shown below.

If you are not able to access or find certain materials, please email us.


online references

(1982) Factory Inspector's Report
This Carbide report before the gas disaster enumerated many safety violations at the Bhopal plant.
File: Factory Inspector_s Report.pdf

(1984) The Report of the ICFTU
The report of the ICFTU-ICEF Mission to study the causes and effects of methyl isocyanate gas leak at the Union Carbide Pesticide Plant in Bhopal, India
File: The Report of the ICFTU.doc.pdf

(1985) Bradford, G. We All Live in Bhopal
This famous and influential article helped establish Bhopal as a global concern. Very important.

(1985) Keshwani, Rajkumar. Bhopal's Killer Plant
Article from Express News Service
File: kesw-killerplant.doc.pdf

(1985) Keshwani, Rajkumar. Closure Facilitates Carbide's Plans
Article from Express News Service.
File: kesw-closure.doc.pdf

(1986) Baxi, U. & P., Thomas - Mass disasters and multinational liability : The Bhopal case. Bombay, N.M. Tripathi.

(1986) Baxi, U. Inconvenient forum and convenient catastrophe: The Bhopal Case. Bombay, N.M. Tripathi.
Excellent book, by one of the most important Bhopal scholars.

(1986) Behind the Poison Cloud: Union Carbide's Bhopal Massacre
Book by Larry Everest, 1986. Based on an on-the-scene investigation in Bhopal, India shortly after the gas disaster.

(1987) Kurzman, D. A Killing Wind : Inside Union Carbide and the Bhopal Catastrophe. New York, McGraw-Hill Book company.

(1987) Shrivastava, P. Bhopal : Anatomy of a Crisis. Cambridge, MA, Ballinger Publishing Company.
A comprehensive treatment of the causes of the disaster.

(1987) Weir, D. The Bhopal Syndrome : Pesticides, Environment and Health. San Franscisco, Center for Investigative Reporting.

(1988) Case Study - Report commissioned by Union Carbide by Arthur D. Little
Investigation of Large-Magnitude Incidents: Bhopal as a Case Study
File: casestdy.pdf

(1990) Vivek, P. S. The Struggle of Man Against Power: Revelation of 1984 Bhopal Tragedy
Himalaya Pub. House; 1st ed.

(1991) Mehta, Suketu. Bhopal Lives
Excellent article from the Village Voice.
File: Bhopal Lives - Mehta.doc.pdf

(1991) Verma, M.L. Worker's Testimony
from "Bhopal: the inside Story" by T. R. Chouhan. The only worker's accounts of the gas disaster.
File: mlvarma.doc.pdf

(1992) Bail Bond
A bail bond for Mr. Warren Anderson, the former Chairman of Union Carbide Corporation, charged with culpable homicide, causing hurt, causing human deaths and the poisoning of animals.
File: bail bond.doc

(1992) Findings and Judgement of the Permanant People's Tribunal on Bhopal
This is the record of the PPT's Bhopal tribunal, which is the closest thing that the Bhopal victims have had to a criminal trial or a truth commission.
File: PPTjudge.pdf

(1993) The Uncertain Promise of Law : Lessons from Bhopal
Traces the origins of the Bhopal tragedy and examines the legal aftermath and global implications. By J. Cassells. University of Toronto Press.

(1994) Basu, A.
A good update, written for the 10th anniversary.
File: basubhopal.doc

(1994) Baxi, U. Valiant Victims and Lethal Litigation: The Bhopal Case. Bombay, N.M. Tripathi.

(1994) Bhopal: An Industrially Induced Epidemic.
The report of the International Medical Commission on Bhopal which was convened in 1994. A copy may be found through contacting Dr. Ingrid Eckerman - eckerman@algonet.se

(1994) Cohen, Gary. Book Review
Book review of Jamie Cassels' "The Uncertain Promise of Law: Lessons from Bhopal". Fron the Stanford Environmental Law Journal
File: review of cassels by cohen.doc.pdf

(1994) Jasanoff, S. Learning from Disaster: Risk Management After Bhopal (Law in Social Context), University of Pennsylvania Press.

(1994) Letter from the Ecologist
Exchange between Bud Geo Holman and Ward Morehouse
File: letters from the ecologist.doc.pdf

(1994) People's Movements in Bhopal
This article by long-time activist in Bhopal traces the history and changes in movements responding to the Bhopal gas disaster - From Righting Corporate Wrongs, testimony presented to the Permanant People's Tribunal, London, Autumn 1994
File: people's movements - Sarangi.doc.pdf

(1994) Permanent People's Tribunal on Industrial Hazards and Human Rights
A detailed study of the sociopolitical constructs surrounding industrial hazards, including judgement and recommended measures for the international community.
File: PPTjudge.pdf

(1995) Das, V. Suffering, Legitmacy and Healing.
Critical events: And anthropological perspective on contemporary India. Delhi, Oxford University Press: 136-174.
File: das-suffering:legitimacy.pdf

(1995) WRIT PETITION (CIVIL) No. 657/1995

(1996) Charter on Industrial Hazards and Human Rights
This charter, from the Permanant People's Tribunal, was written in response to the Bhopal disaster as guidelines for the behavior of multinational corporations.
File: Charter.pdf

(1996) Varma, Rahul. Bhopal
Play written by Toronto Playwright about Bhopal.
File: Bhopal.Play--Zahreeli Hawa.doc.pdf

(1998) Lepkowski, Wil. The Culture of Union Carbide
from Chemical and Engineering News.
File: lepkowski.doc.pdf

(1998) Mahapatra, Richard. Five Steps to Recovery
Panchkarma, an ayurvetic treatment, holds the key to Bhopal gas victims recovery. This article discusses the Sambhava clinic which treats survivors with both Ayurvedic and Allopathic medicine

(1999) Cohen, G.

(1999) Dow Chemical. Holding Nature Sacred
Dow's report on environmental standards, from Around Dow.
File: Holding Nature Sacred

(1999) The Bhopal Legacy
An informative Greenpeace publication, this summarizes research findings of toxic contaminations at the former Union Carbide factory site, 15 years after the gas disaster.
File: bhopal.pdf

(2000) A Brief Note on Prescriptions Collected from the Bhopal Hospital Trust
Dr. Atanu Sarkar's study based on photocopies of prescriptions collected from patients undergoing treatment at BHT.
File: Microsoft Word - BMHT Prescriptions.pdf

(2000) Hemoglobin Level Survey
File: hemoglobin level survey.pdf

(2000) Holding Nature Sacred
A Dow Chemical publication that seems to attempt to convince you (and itself) that the most important function of the Bhopal tragedy was to help the corporation along the path of their continuing environmental virtue.

(2000) Myths and Realities
This excellent Greenpeace publication gives the truth behind Union Carbide Corporation's website on the Bhopal gas disaster.
File: bhopa.commyths.pdf

(2001) Eckerman, Ingrid. Chemical Industry and Public Health: Bhopal as an Example
This article by Ingrid Eckerman appears in both Swedish and English and uses the Bhopal gas disaster as an example of corporate accountability.
File: Bhopal Gas Disaster.pdf

(2001) Fortun, K. Advocacy After Bhopal: Environmentalism, Disaster, New Global Orders. Chicago, The University of Chicago Press.
This book is an excellent history and analysis of the way that Bhopal has been situated in the shifting plains of global environmental advocacy.

(2001) Kumar, Raj C. Bhopal Victims' Legal Victory
From India National Newspaper
File: legalvictory-thehindu.doc.pdf

(2001) Second Circuit Opinion
Bano v. Union Carbide Corp., 2000 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 12326 (S.D.N.Y. Aug. 28, 2000)
File: Bano 2nd Cir Opinion 11-15-01.rtf

(2001) Vajpeyi, Y. Bhopal gas victims to get free medicare. The Indian Express.

(2002) Basu, Anayo. Torts in India
Torts in India: Dharmic Resignation, Colonial Subjugation, or "Underdevelopment"?
File: Torts in India - Basu.pdf

(2002) Bhopal Principles on Corporate Accountability. Earth Summit 2002, Rio.
Greenpeace takes Bhopal as a case study for designing guiding principles for corporate accountability

(2002) Bhopal Stockpiles
Chemical stockpiles at Union Carbide India Limited in Bhopal: an investigation
File: Bhopalstockpiles.pdf

(2002) Compensation Community Survey
Survey of Compensation among residents of Jaiprakash Nagar
File: Compensation Community Survey.pdf

(2002) Corporate Crimes
A Greenpeace publication that states the need for an international instrument on corporate accountability and liability
File: greepc corporate crimes.pdf

(2002) D'Amico, Esther. Dow May Sue over Hoax Website
Article from Chemical Week Associates.
File: dow may sue over hoax website.doc.pdf

(2002) Five Past Midnight in Bhopal.
Compelling novelistic rendition of the Bhopal Disaster by Dominique Lapierre. Lapierre's foundation is online at: www.cityofjoyaid.org

(2002) Global Funds tell Union Carbide to Settle Bhopal Gas Leak Claims
An article from Financial Times.
File: ft - global fund tells uc to settle bhopal claims.doc.pdf

(2002) Johnston, R. S. a. P. Technical guidelines for cleanup at the Union Carbide India Ltd (Ucil) site in Bhopal, Madya Pradesh, India. Greenpeace Research Laboratories.
This is the comprehensive documentation of the contamination left at the Union Carbide site in Bhopal. Excellent photographs.

(2002) Murthy, Srinivasa R. Mental Health Report
Mental health impact of Bhopal gas disaster
File: mental health report.doc.pdf

(2002) Nash, Jonathan. Study of Health Clinics in Gas Affected Bhopal
The main objective of this excellent study done by Jonathan Nash was "to find out how private health clinics in gas-affected Bhopal operate on a day-to-day basis".
File: jonathan nash_s study.pdf

(2002) Parker, Michael D. An Open Letter to all Employees on the Tragedy in Bhopal
Letter from president and CEO of Dow Chemical to the employees from the Dow Intranet.
File: parker'slettertodow.doc.pdf

(2002) Singh, I.
A call for justice during the 2002 hunger strike, by a friend of the strikers.

(2003) Corporate Crime Resolution
A resolution that a) supports the demands of the survivors of the Bhopal disaster, the world's worst industrial disaster and heinous corporate crime; b) declares the anniversary of the Bhopal disaster, December 3rd, an annual day of action against corporate crime.
File: GDA.Resolve.doc.pdf

(2003) Greenpeace Brings Campaign Against Dow Chemical to Brazil
Greenpeace protests in Brazil against Dow Chemical, asking for the clean up of areas in Latin America and Bhopal, India. Article from Financial Times.
File: greenpeace brings campaign against dow to Brazil.doc.pdf

(2003) Greenpeace Maps Toxic Hotspot
An article from the Economic Times of India
File: economic times - Greenpeace maps toxic hotspots.doc.pdf

(2003) Ground Water Contamination Survey
File: ground water contamination survey.pdf

(2003) Jayaraman, Nityanand. Dow Chemical: A Rap Sheet
From the Ecologist Asia.
File: dow - rapsheet final.doc.pdf

(2003) Methyl Isocyanate Exposure and Growth Patterns of Adolescents in Bhopal
A research letter by Holly Kramer and Chi-yuan Hsu summarizing a study on the effects of methyl isocyanate exposure on the growth of adolescents in Bhopal.
File: adolescents mic.pdf

(2003) Statement from the Dow Chemical Company Regarding the Bhopal Tragedy

(2003) The Bhopal Chronology of Events
From www.bhopal.net
File: icjbChronology.doc.pdf

(2003) The Ugly Side of Development
The callous and ugly side of development has been brought into sharp focus by testimonies of common people from toxic hotspots of various states. From Financial Times.
File: ft-the ugly side of development.doc.pdf

(2003) Union Carbide Used Unproven Technologies
A memo admitted that Union Carbide used unproven technologies. The company insists that costs were cut mostly on systems not directly involved with the accident. An article from Financial Times.
File: ft - unproven technology.doc.pdf

(2003) Westlaw Document
No. 99 Civ.11329 JFK - provided by John Musser, spokesperson, Dow Chemical Corporation.
File: Westlaw_Document_09_56_08_2568.rtf

(2003). Sajida Bano v. Union Carbide Corp.New York Law Journal Vol. 229; Pg. p. 23, col. 3,

(2004) BGIA Application
Application to issue summons to Midland, Michigan, USA based the Dow Chemical Company to produce proclaimed absconder accused Union Carbide Corporation before the Court of Honorable Chief Justice Magistrate, Bhopal.
File: Microsoft Word - BGIA Application.pdf

(2004) Bidwai, Praful. Slow Motion Justice for Bhopal
An informative article from the Nav Hind Times, July 28th, 2004.
File: bidwai_slowmotionjustice.doc.pdf

(2004) Chemical Industry vs. The Public Interest
A report by Niaz Dorry and Nityanand Jayaraman that aims to redefine the public debate on chemical security.
File: chemical security.pdf

(2004) Dow Environmental Liability Overview
This article from Innovest outlines major potential liabilities concerning contamination, remediation and tort litigation facing the company which were not reported or were under-reported in Dow Chemical Corporation 10ks for 2002 and 2003.
File: Innoves2004.pdf

(2004) Doyle, Jack. Trespass Against Us: Dow Chemical and the Toxic Century
"From its "accident" at Bhopal by its Union Carbide company to Agent Orange, from Napalm to Plutonium, Dow Chemical has been at the center of many of the worst chemical disasters in history. In this explosive expose of the chemical giant, Jack Doyle reviews the legacy and the future of this gigantic chemical octopus. A comprehensive overview of the company's dirty deeds from dioxin to Greenwashing, Doyle provides an indispensable history with a grave warning for what's up next." from Amazon.com review of "Trespass Against Us".
File: Trespass- FinalFrontCover.pdf

(2004) Fact Finding Mission
Article from the Hindustan Times.
File: Hindustan Times Article Dec 2004.pdf

(2004) India's Court Orders Bhopal Compensation
From the Associated Press.
File: compensation.PDF

(2004) Jayaraman, Nityanand. Poor Little Rich Corporation
The Ecolologist Asia, Corporate accountability issue.
File: poor little rich.doc.pdf

(2004) Second Circuit Opinion
Text of the 2004 Decision of United States District Court for the Southern District of New York - provided by John Musser, spokesman, Dow Chemical.
File: 2004 Second Cir. Opinion.pdf

(2004) The Bhopal Resolution
Recognizing the 20th anniversary of the Bhopal disaster and expressing the commitment of Congress to work with the government of India and others to ensure that Union Carbide provides environmental and medical rehabilitation of the affected area and is held responsible for its actions.
File: bhopal resolution.pdf

(2004) Too Little, Too Late
editorial in 'the hindu' on the disbursement of compensation

(2004) US Refuses to Extradite Anderson
US rejects India’s request for extradition of Anderson. From www.sify.com
File: US rejects India.PDF

(2005) Baue, William. Review of the Bhopal Reader
A review of the Bhopal Reader from www.socialfunds.com.
File: bhopal reader.PDF

(2005) Bhopal: A Report from the Future
Unknown author, date, or place of publication. Authenticity unverified. Absolutely fascinating document about Bhopal. A must read.
File: Bhopal; A Report from the Future.doc

(2005) Bowen, Stephen. Full-Spectrum Human Rights: Amnesty International Rethinks
The interdependence of the modern world is leading the human rights organisation Amnesty International towards a fresh conception of its work, explains its UK campaigns director, Stephen Bowen.
File: Full.PDF

(2005) Chakraborty, Rana. Killer in Slumber and Road to Recovery
These two articles were published by the National Foundation for India.
File: Killer in Slumber.doc

(2005) Chief Judicial Magistrate's Order
Chief Judicial Magistrate, Bhopal's order of January 6, 2005, requiring Dow Chemical Company USA to state why it should not be asked to present absconding accused Union Carbide Corporation in the ongoing criminal case on the December '84 disaster in Bhopal.
File: CJM Order.pdf

(2005) Compensation from Amnesty Report
Excerpt from Amnesty International Report on Bhopal
File: Compensation from Amnesty report.pdf

(2005) Consulate Letter to Pramathesh Rath
Letter to Mr. Rath "We the undersigned, and gathered today outside the consulate, wish to make known to you and to the Government of India, our great concern for the situation in Bhopal, India"
File: GOTB-LetterToNYConsulate.PDF

(2005) Eckerman, Ingrid. The Bhopal Saga
"The Bhopal Saga is an attempt to bring order from the chaos of events before, during, and after the methyl isocyanate (MIC) release. Not a scientific analysis, the book summarizes events leading up to the accident of December 1984 and the relief work in the ensuing two decades" From the Environmental Health Perspectives Online
File: maybookcov.jpg

(2005) Eckerman, Ingrid. The Bhopal Saga, 100 References
Excellent bibliography, particularly of medical and scientific resources about Bhopal, compiled by Dr. Ingrid Eckerman. From Ingrid Eckermans book, "The Bhopal Saga". 2004
File: 100 References The Bhopal Saga.pdf

(2005) In the Sweep of Human Rights
A new Bhopal poem for Rashida and Champa.
File: bhopal reader.PDF

(2005) Rajogopal, Arvind. Article about Sambhavna Clinic
Publication date/place unknown.
File: I was trying to begin this essay for while but for some reason I was.doc

(2005) Report of the Hospital Monitoring Committee
Second report of the Monitoring Committee On Medical rehabilitation of Bhopal gas Victims
File: Subject.PDF

(2005) Taibbi, Matt. Sorrow in Danbury
An excellent analysis of the media on Bhopal published in the NY press.

(2005) Texan Environmental Activist Diane Wilson: Why I Refuse to go to Jail
Three years ago Wilson was arrested for committing civil disobediance at a Dow Chemical plant to protest the company's connection to the Bhopal chemical disaster. She’s now refusing to go to prison until former Union Carbide CEO Warren Andersen is jailed for his role in Bhopal. This is an interview of Wilson in which she explains her actions. From democracynow.org
File: Texan Environmental Activist Diane Wilson.doc

An educational initiative of the Human Rights Project at Bard College, Annandale-on-Hudson, NY

The Bhopal Memory Project Bard Human Rights Project